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Thoracic surgery

Find all the surgical interventions, lectures, experts opinions, debates, webinars and operative techniques per specialty.
Bronchoscopy for thoracic surgeons
The idea of this lecture originated from the fact that there is very little teaching material which described bronchoscopy as practiced by the thoracic surgeon. Chest physicians (pulmonologists) perform flexible bronchoscopy on a sedated patient, and they get up-side-down views to that obtained by the surgeons. Bronchoscopy at our department is performed under general anaesthesia, usually in the anaesthetic room just before the operation. We introduce a rigid bronchoscope first, and then a flexible fibre optic 5mm bronchoscope through the rigid scope into the trachea. This arrangement enables precise diagnosis due to excellent vision, with the ability to transform the procedure into a therapeutic session, for example, to take large biopsies, and decide to laser a lesion or to put in a central airway stent. Controlled breathing makes it safer to control significant bleeding during the procedure, and it is understandable that chest physicians shy away from biopsying carcinoid tumours.
The video is divided into 6 chapters. Chapter one deals with the identification of the bronchopulmonary segments and a bit of history about the two systems of nomenclature. It describes in a simplified way the effects of the heart growing in the left chest and the results of fusion, rotation and delayed branching of bronchi. Chapter 2 deals with normal bronchoscopy and anatomy of trachea, main bronchi, and segmental bronchi. Chapter 3 deals with abnormalities of the upper airways and trachea. Chapter 4 deals with abnormalities of the right bronchial tree, and chapter 5 deals with abnormalities of the left bronchial tree. The emphasis is on surgical pathology, assessment of airway for resection and decision-making. The viewer is encouraged to take the test on chapter 6 to bolster his/her knowledge of the anatomy of the airways.

1. Objectives:
a. To identify the bronchopulmonary segments in a logical and easy way to recall.
b. To understand the embryological changes resulting from heart growing into left chest.
c. To state what the operator should look for, what is normal and what is abnormal.
d. To help decision-making at operation and in the perioperative period.

2. For whom is this video made:
a. Consultants and trainees in the specialty of cardiothoracic surgery, including paediatric thoracic surgeons.
b. Thoracic and general anaesthetists who are involved with single lung ventilation.
c. Chest physicians who perform bronchoscopy, to understand views and capabilities of flexible over rigid bronchoscopy, and to have a gist of what goes on the mind of a thoracic surgeon when performing bronchoscopy.
d. Intensivists who might perform bronchoscopy via an endotracheal tube for a ventilated patient in the intensive care unit (ICU).
e. Medical students interested in the detailed anatomy of the central airways.

3. What this video is not intended to do:
a. This is not a compendium of abnormalities and pathologies revealed by bronchoscopy.
K Amer
Lecture
2 years ago
936 views
39 likes
0 comments
59:32
Bronchoscopy for thoracic surgeons
The idea of this lecture originated from the fact that there is very little teaching material which described bronchoscopy as practiced by the thoracic surgeon. Chest physicians (pulmonologists) perform flexible bronchoscopy on a sedated patient, and they get up-side-down views to that obtained by the surgeons. Bronchoscopy at our department is performed under general anaesthesia, usually in the anaesthetic room just before the operation. We introduce a rigid bronchoscope first, and then a flexible fibre optic 5mm bronchoscope through the rigid scope into the trachea. This arrangement enables precise diagnosis due to excellent vision, with the ability to transform the procedure into a therapeutic session, for example, to take large biopsies, and decide to laser a lesion or to put in a central airway stent. Controlled breathing makes it safer to control significant bleeding during the procedure, and it is understandable that chest physicians shy away from biopsying carcinoid tumours.
The video is divided into 6 chapters. Chapter one deals with the identification of the bronchopulmonary segments and a bit of history about the two systems of nomenclature. It describes in a simplified way the effects of the heart growing in the left chest and the results of fusion, rotation and delayed branching of bronchi. Chapter 2 deals with normal bronchoscopy and anatomy of trachea, main bronchi, and segmental bronchi. Chapter 3 deals with abnormalities of the upper airways and trachea. Chapter 4 deals with abnormalities of the right bronchial tree, and chapter 5 deals with abnormalities of the left bronchial tree. The emphasis is on surgical pathology, assessment of airway for resection and decision-making. The viewer is encouraged to take the test on chapter 6 to bolster his/her knowledge of the anatomy of the airways.

1. Objectives:
a. To identify the bronchopulmonary segments in a logical and easy way to recall.
b. To understand the embryological changes resulting from heart growing into left chest.
c. To state what the operator should look for, what is normal and what is abnormal.
d. To help decision-making at operation and in the perioperative period.

2. For whom is this video made:
a. Consultants and trainees in the specialty of cardiothoracic surgery, including paediatric thoracic surgeons.
b. Thoracic and general anaesthetists who are involved with single lung ventilation.
c. Chest physicians who perform bronchoscopy, to understand views and capabilities of flexible over rigid bronchoscopy, and to have a gist of what goes on the mind of a thoracic surgeon when performing bronchoscopy.
d. Intensivists who might perform bronchoscopy via an endotracheal tube for a ventilated patient in the intensive care unit (ICU).
e. Medical students interested in the detailed anatomy of the central airways.

3. What this video is not intended to do:
a. This is not a compendium of abnormalities and pathologies revealed by bronchoscopy.
Technique for endoscopic resection of obstructive endobronchial malignancy
Invasion of the tracheo-bronchial tree by a malignant pulmonary lesion is the most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction in the adult. Malignant obstruction of major airways may require endoscopic resection for rapid palliation of dyspnea and obstructive pneumonitis.
Patients should be evaluated with flexible bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the chest to assess the anatomy of the obstruction and demonstrate patent airway distally. This criterion is critical for optimal selection.
Resection is carried out in the operating room under general anesthesia. It is important to emphasize that close collaboration between the surgical and anesthesia teams is essential at all times, as they are sharing responsibility for the airway. We use rigid bronchoscopy for piecemeal extraction of the lesion. Since moderate bleeding may be encountered, the clinician should be familiar with hemostatic manoeuvres including dabbing raw bronchial surfaces using the rigid bronchoscope, the use of epinephrine soaked pledgets, and irrigation using epinephrine solution. Hemostasis may also be accomplished using energy sources delivered through a flexible bronchoscope, including electrocautery, argon beam, and Nd:YAG laser. All energy sources should be used with caution within the airway to minimize the risk of complications.
Depending on the individual patient, endobronchial resection may be combined with airway stenting and/or postoperative chemoradiotherapy. In carefully selected patients, this will result in adequate palliation of symptoms.
Acknowledgment: we would like to thank Nathalie Leroux RN and Suzanne Desbiens RN for their continued support.
G Rakovich
Surgical intervention
6 years ago
834 views
8 likes
0 comments
04:07
Technique for endoscopic resection of obstructive endobronchial malignancy
Invasion of the tracheo-bronchial tree by a malignant pulmonary lesion is the most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction in the adult. Malignant obstruction of major airways may require endoscopic resection for rapid palliation of dyspnea and obstructive pneumonitis.
Patients should be evaluated with flexible bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the chest to assess the anatomy of the obstruction and demonstrate patent airway distally. This criterion is critical for optimal selection.
Resection is carried out in the operating room under general anesthesia. It is important to emphasize that close collaboration between the surgical and anesthesia teams is essential at all times, as they are sharing responsibility for the airway. We use rigid bronchoscopy for piecemeal extraction of the lesion. Since moderate bleeding may be encountered, the clinician should be familiar with hemostatic manoeuvres including dabbing raw bronchial surfaces using the rigid bronchoscope, the use of epinephrine soaked pledgets, and irrigation using epinephrine solution. Hemostasis may also be accomplished using energy sources delivered through a flexible bronchoscope, including electrocautery, argon beam, and Nd:YAG laser. All energy sources should be used with caution within the airway to minimize the risk of complications.
Depending on the individual patient, endobronchial resection may be combined with airway stenting and/or postoperative chemoradiotherapy. In carefully selected patients, this will result in adequate palliation of symptoms.
Acknowledgment: we would like to thank Nathalie Leroux RN and Suzanne Desbiens RN for their continued support.
Endoscopic resection of an endobronchial hamartoma
Invasion of the tracheo-bronchial tree by a malignant pulmonary lesion is the most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction in the adult. However, benign lesions, although rare, may also occur.
Hamartoma is amongst the most frequent benign endobronchial tumors. In many cases, these tumors are amenable to endoscopic treatment (either resection or laser ablation), thus sparing the patient the potential morbidity of a thoracotomy and bronchial or parenchymal resection.
We present a case of bronchoscopic resection of a hamartoma obstructing the left lower lobe bronchus in a 58-year-old patient who had presented with cough and post-obstructive pneumonia.
Key aspects of the procedure include:
- Optimal pre-operative evaluation with flexible bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the chest.
- Close collaboration between the surgical and anesthesia teams who are sharing responsibility for the airway.
- Careful use of energy sources within the airway.
- Adequate precautions in case of an unexpected major endobronchial bleed.
The prognosis of completely resected benign tumors is excellent.
Acknowledgment: we would like to thank Nathalie Leroux RN and Mélodie Leclerc RN for their continued support.
G Rakovich, D Ouellette, G Beauchamp
Surgical intervention
7 years ago
1400 views
12 likes
1 comment
03:33
Endoscopic resection of an endobronchial hamartoma
Invasion of the tracheo-bronchial tree by a malignant pulmonary lesion is the most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction in the adult. However, benign lesions, although rare, may also occur.
Hamartoma is amongst the most frequent benign endobronchial tumors. In many cases, these tumors are amenable to endoscopic treatment (either resection or laser ablation), thus sparing the patient the potential morbidity of a thoracotomy and bronchial or parenchymal resection.
We present a case of bronchoscopic resection of a hamartoma obstructing the left lower lobe bronchus in a 58-year-old patient who had presented with cough and post-obstructive pneumonia.
Key aspects of the procedure include:
- Optimal pre-operative evaluation with flexible bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the chest.
- Close collaboration between the surgical and anesthesia teams who are sharing responsibility for the airway.
- Careful use of energy sources within the airway.
- Adequate precautions in case of an unexpected major endobronchial bleed.
The prognosis of completely resected benign tumors is excellent.
Acknowledgment: we would like to thank Nathalie Leroux RN and Mélodie Leclerc RN for their continued support.