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High-definition endoscopy and chromoendoscopy

Epublication WebSurg.com, Feb 2016;16(02). URL: http://websurg.com/doi/lt03enminami002

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Chromoendoscopy uses the topical application of stains or pigments to improve tissue localization, characterization, or diagnosis during endoscopy. Various stains used are as follows: - absorptive stains: Lugol’s solution of iodine, methylene blue; - contrast stains: indigo carmine; - reactive stains: congo red and phenol red. The most commonly used stains are iodine and methylene blue. The other available advanced endoscopic technologies for lesion assessment are magnification endoscopy, confocal endoscopy, and confocal endocytoscopy. This video highlights the various types of mucosal patterns in early cancer seen with the use of high definition and magnification endoscopy. Narrow band imaging (NBI): this is an imaging technique used in endoscopy where lights of blue or green wavelength are used to enhance the details of the mucosal pattern.